E-encyclopedia of banking, stock exchange and finance

Selected letter: V



    The value at risk (VaR) measures the risk of loss associated to financial assets. For a given time period (normally ranging from 1 to 10 days), and with a given probability confidence (generally equal to 95% or 99%); this measure represents the maximum loss the investor can suffer when holding financial assets. The time horizon used to calculate the VaR depends on the investment duration; the value at risk is used to compute the minimum capital requirements necessary to compensate losses resulting from market risk, according to the BIS banking regulation.

    Value at risk (VaR) measures the risk of loss associated to financial assets. For a given time period (normally ranging from 1 to 10 days), and with a given probability level (generally equal to 95% or 99%), this measure represents the maximum loss the investor can suffer when holding financial assets. This loss derives from a model implementation, and reflects the interaction of a number of factors assumed correlated one with the other.

    The time horizon chosen to calculate VaR is in accordance with the investment duration or with the minimum time length needed to disinvest in case of loss. The VaR is used also, and perhaps mostly, to determine the minimum capital requirements necessary to compensate for losses resulting from market risk. This measure applies, therefore, anytime an evaluation of market risk is done for equity, bonds, foreign currencies or derivatives portfolios.

    Let’s calculate, for example, the VaR during t0-t0+n of a portfolio composed by only one financial asset whose returns are distributed as a Normal with mean ? = 100 € and standard deviation ? = 39,39 €. Assume also that around the interval ? ± 1,65? (i.e., from 35 € to 165 €) is distributed 90% of returns. If, at the time of its evaluation, the portfolio is quoted precisely at its equilibrium price (100 € as reported in Fig 1), we would have a VaR (highest loss expected) of -65 € with a 95% confidence level. In other words, between t0 e t0+n the value of financial asset would be lower than 35 € in 5% of cases and higher in the remaining 95%, as shown in Fig. 1.

    Fig. 1: VaR identification and calculation

    Given market risks to which a bank is subject, the vigilance authority requires the maintenance of a minimum level of capital to face those risks. In the case in which a bank does not have models for VaR calculation (advanced models), developed by internal risk management departments and validated by professionals in charge of supervision (e.g., national central banks), the VaR models applied to derive the requirements can be those suggested by the reference regulation of Basel III (standard models).

    Major VaR calculation methodologies are a) the Historical-simulation approach, b) the Delta-Normal approach, c) the Monte Carlo approach.

    a) Hystorical simulation approach

    Historical simulation approach for VaR calculation bases the future distribution of the asset returns on its past behaviour. Indeed, it estimates the distribution of future returns by starting from a finite number of past observations. This methodology identifies VaR as the x%-quantile of the historical returns distribution for the financial asset. This is the simplest VaR methodology to be used, since it only needs, as an input, the time series data for the asset price observations, and assumes that the future will replicate past behaviour. As a result, no hypothesis on the probability distribution for future returns is necessary. Once built the time series for the asset returns, VaR is identified as the left tail corresponding to the chosen confidence level. This chosen confidence level assures that on x% cases the future asset returns will be higher than calculated VaR, while only on 1-x% cases the future asset returns will be lower than VaR itself. The weakness point of this calculation methodology is represented by the lack of predictive factors into the VaR estimation, being this only based on its past occurrences. In case of use of historical simulation methods for VaR calculation, in order to quantify market risk, Basel Committee requires - to ensure adequate consistency of results - the use of time series having at least a year of daily observations.

    b) Normal approach

    It is based on the assumption that each asset composing the portfolio has returns following a normal distribution. As a result, the overall portfolio probability distribution of returns will be a linear combination of the single-asset returns distributions. Consequently, the standard deviation of portfolio returns depends on the standard deviations of its individual components, and on their correlations. The estimate of correlations between individual input factors of the model could result difficult due to the lack of a liquid exchange market for one or more assets (and as a consequence, an unreliable statistical distribution for those factors), or due to the poor quality of historical data used for the estimation. In these cases, one can rely on the use of a single parameter, instead of many, which reasonably approximates all the elements of variability originally considered (for example, instead of considering n equities eligible to affect the return of the financial asset, we will consider only the average historical return of the stock market in which all the n shares are exchanged). The simplification of the number of n factors in the model through the use k (<n) factors is also known as “risk mapping” activity. The limit of normal approach for VaR calculation is represented by the normality assumption of all the parameters into the model, an hypothesis that is almost never in line with the real situation.

    c) Montecarlo simulation approach

    It is based on a concept similar to that of the historical simulation approach. It starts from historical data to define what is the most suitable probability distribution to describe past returns behaviour.

    - the first step is to identify and estimate input factors affecting financial assets performance; for each of these, an hypothesis about its probability distribution will be formulated;
    - subsequently, these parameters will be correlated one with the other through the formulation of a mathematical model where the input parameters are the independent variables while financial asset returns are the dependent variable;
    - after the choice of the distribution that best fits the curve of returns, it is used a pseudo-random number generator to create hundreds, or thousands, of possible evolution scenarios for the underlying factors of the model, resulting in a random distribution of the returns of the asset;
    - the VaR will be finally calculated from the generated random distribution.

    The main weakness point of this calculation methodology is that choosing the statistical distribution to estimate parameters is not always an easy process. Similarly, the calculation of VaR by using this methodology (since it could depend on many factors), may require long processing times.


    Jorion, P. (2007). Financial risk manager handbook (4 ed.). Hoboken, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Markowitz, H.M. (1959). Portfolio Selection: Efficient Diversification of Investments. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    Matten, C. (2000). Managing bank capital: Capital allocation and performance measurement (2 ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Saita, F. (2007). Value at Risk and Bank Capital Management. Risk Adjusted Performances, Capital Management, and Capital Allocation Decision Making. Academic Press Advances Financial Series, 2007, Elsevier Inc.

    Sharpe, W.F., (1964). Capital Asset Prices: a Theory of Market Equilibrium Under Conditions of Risk. Journal of Finance 19(3), 425-442;

    Sharpe, W. F. (1966). Mutual fund performance. Journal of Business, 39, 119-138.
    Sharpe, W. F. (1975). Adjusting for risk in portfolio performance measurement. Journal of Portfolio Management, 29-34.
    Sharpe, W. F. (1994). The Sharpe ratio. Journal of Portfolio Management, 49-58.
    Treynor, J. (1965). How to rate management of investment funds. Harvard Business Review, 63-75.
    Wolfgang S., M. Von Wendland (2009). Pricing, Risk, and Performance Measurement in Practice: The Building Block Approach to Modeling Instruments and Portfolios. Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc. Academic Press Inc , 2009.

    Editor: Melania MICHETTI

  • Variance

    It's defined as the average of the squared deviations of the observed values from their arithmetic mean.

    Where X is the observed value and E[X] is the arithmetic mean.

    It's a measure of the variability or dispersion and it is the second-order moment of the observed value distribution. It's also used as an index for measuring the risk inherent an investment with uncertain returns, estimated on the basis of historical data.


    Guseo R., Statistica, CEDAM, 2006
    Hardaker J. B., Huirne R. B. M.,Coping with risk in Agriculture, CABI, 2004
    Leti G., Statistica descrittiva, Il Mulino, 1999

    Editor: Giuliano DI TOMMASO


    Veneto Banca Group was one of the first 15 Italian Banks. It has been declared bankrupted in 2017 by the Italian Minister of Finance (MEF).


    The Group is the result of a long journey that dates back to 1877, year in which the popular bank Banca Popolare di Montebelluna was founded. In 1966, the popular institution merged with Banca del Mandamento di Asolo, thus creating Banca Popolare di Asolo e Montebelluna. In 2000, it changed its name into Veneto Banca, after acquiring Banca di Credito Cooperativo del Piave e del Livenza, with the aim of serving a larger area of the Treviso province, where its roots are, and it became in the medium term a point of reference for families, enterprises, associations and public agencies of the region.Veneto Banca opened several branches in the Veneto and Friuli regions and created product companies such as Claris Assicurazioni, Claris Broker, Claris Factor, Claris Leasing and Claris Cinque (the last one specialised in wage assignment loans). Veneto Banca also implemented online services, like Clarisbanca (for private clients) and Impresa Web (for enterprises), and added a network of financial promoters, called Claris Net, to its branches.It acquired control of other credit institutions in Italy (Banca di Bergamo, Banca Popolare di Monza e Brianza, Banca Popolare di Intra, all operative in the North West of Italy) and in Eastern Europe (Banca Italo Romena in Romania, Eximbank in Moldova, Veneto Banka in Croatia and Banca Italiana di Sviluppo in Albania). It also created a new bank in Southern Italy (Banca Meridiana). At the beginning of 2008, Veneto Banca Group changed its structure: the parent company Veneto Banca became Veneto Banca Holding, keeping its status as a popular cooperative bank limited by shares and by the governing, strategic and control duties of a reality that is more and more articulated in Italy and abroad.The commercial sector is now divided into four geographic areas, each served by a joint-stock company: Veneto Banca in the North East, Banca Popolare di Intra (that absorbed Banca Popolare di Monza and Banca di Bergamo) in the North West, Banca Meridiana in the South and the foreign banks in Eastern Europe. Between the end of 2008 and the beginning of 2009, Veneto Banca Holding reached an agreement with Carifac (Cassa di Risparmio di Fabriano and Cupramontana, in the centre of Italy) and with BancApulia (in the south of the peninsula), in order to create - after the due authorisations - a banking group all along the Adriatic coastline, from Friuli Venezia Giulia to Apulia. Veneto Banca Group's mission is to be an innovative and autonomous group, a leader in its own territories, capable of providing a high quality of service and of generating value, ethically and responsibly, over the long term for its shareholders, customers and employees.

    Link: https://www.gruppovenetobanca.it/en/la-storia
    © 2011 -2018 ASSONEBB


    Bank foreclosed in 2017 with a decree of the Italian Minister of Economy.


    In a country like Italy, marked by municipalities and a deep tie with the territory, local banks have often played an important role in the economic, social and political development of their area. This is the case for Veneto Banca S.C.p.A.1 as well, the bank leading the twelfth Italian banking group for administered funds … Gruppo Veneto Banca -, current outcome of the “ancient” Banca popolare di Montebelluna (Cooperative Bank of Montebelluna), a town in the province of Treviso.
    The economic history shows many examples of a single event from which important repercussions for the economic development of entire communities have spread. In this case, the creation, between 1869 and 1872, of a general market that made of Montebelluna a sort of centre of gravity for the surrounding area was decisive. The foundation of the bank, together with the establishment of the general market, can then be seen as one of the main tools through which the modernisation of Montebelluna took place. The establishment of the bank fitted in with a context of development that was fruitful for cooperative banks: indeed, in the same period similar banks were established in Asolo, Valdobbiadene and Vicenza.
    On 8 August 1877, in the presence of notary public Guido Dall’Armi … future first CEO of the bank-, the promoting committee2 signed the founding act and deposited the capital stock … 21,096 lire divided into shares of 20 lire each … thus allowing the Board of Directors to take office3. The first statute was approved by the assembly only in April 1883: the articles regulated the institutional activity of the bank, but they also defined the action of the bank as a protagonist of local charity …the statute established that 10% of profit had to be put towards charity, at the Board of Directors’ discretion4.
    The first years were dedicated above all to the strengthening of the bank, thus postponing the development to a second phase to such a degree that the first branch, Pederobba, became operative only in January 1914. Shortly after this first important step, war broke out in the territory of Treviso: in November 1917, after the defeat of Caporetto, the prefect was even obliged to order a stop to the operations by inviting the bank to transfer its securities in an area sheltered from the Austrian menace … the Bank therefore suspended all operations and moved to Ferrara.
    The reconstruction that followed the Great War represented a big opportunity of expansion (in the mid 1920s, the profits increased four times as compared to 1914), but it brought with it also the first “attentions” from other big banks (“Rizzardi, the CEO, reported of a meeting held in Padova in order to agree on a strategy to resist against the attempts of the greatest banks to expand in small centres with the ‘clear aim of absorbing cooperative banks’”5), therefore Popolare di Montebelluna tried immediately to establish alliances by joining, with a fee of 20,000 lire, the Istituto Federale di Credito e Risorgimento delle Venezie. The new statute, approved in the meeting of 1923, opened up the possibility to grant loans to third parties and non-shareholders, thus stimulating further the fundraising skills of the bank (confirmed by two significant increases in capital: the first in 1923 … from 104,409 to 423,280 lire- and the second in 1935 … from 439,680 to 769,440 lire) and differentiating its action in the territory … 1934 was the year in which it started a collection of works of art as well.
    During Fascism, the regime put the bank under pressure when appointing the chief executive officers and managers … with particularly clear effects in 19406 - and by asking repeatedly funding for the various fascist organisations … in particular the Opera Nazionale Balilla (Fascist youth organisation, TN) and dopolavoro (club organising leisure activities for workers in their free time, TN).
    Thanks to the Marshall Plan and the start of the European process of integration, Italy, as other European countries, experienced an economic boom in the second post-war period and especially in the 1950s. In the province of Treviso, the average per-capita income shifted from 110,481 lire in 1951 to 363,907 lire in 1961. The industrial take-off of the Italian North-East can be seen also in the remarkable “fall” in support to agricultural credit by Popolare di Montebelluna and the parallel rise in the industrial one (between 1951 and 1971, the number of people employed in the primary sector decreased from 36.7% to 10.5%, whereas those in the industry increased from 43.8% to 66.9%). In 1954, the barrier of one billion deposits was overcome … they were only 100 million in 1946 and 400 in 1951.
    The new economic and social context required stronger ties and alliances between small-medium banks: as a consequence, on 1 December 1955, Popolare di Montebelluna joined Unione delle banche popolari della Marca trevigiana (Union of the cooperative banks of the area of Treviso) … composed also of Asolo, Valdobbiadene, Castelfranco. A simple union, though, was not enough. Hence, tighter and tighter contacts with the bank Popolare di Asolo were made … a bank that was very courted by other two cooperative banks of the area and by other banks … until the merger was reached in July 1966, thus creating Banca Popolare di Asolo e Montebelluna, whose president was Roberto Tomatis from Montebelluna, while the vice-president was Leandro Biadene, former president in Asolo. The shares of the new bank were paid on a par with those of Montebelluna, and in a ratio 5 to 2 for those of Asolo. After the Asolo operations, more followed: in 1967, the merger with Cassa rurale e artigiana di Ponzano Veneto, and in 1969, the takeover of Cassa rurale di Borso del Grappa.
    The 1970s were a time when the Bank became stronger, also thanks to the take-off of the industrial district of sport footwear … the Moon Boot snow boots became very popular -, yet, the one hundred years of activity were celebrated in an undertone, without big events. Instead, the following decade can be defined as a phase of high technological innovation for the entire banking system, and therefore for Popolare di Asolo e Montebelluna as well: in 1982, the first ATMs were bought and a few years later the bank joined Cartasì (a credit card provider, TN). At the same time, personal computers, printers and fax machines invaded the offices of the headquarters and branches requiring new competences … a revolution that ended up influencing deeply the profile of the average employee and eliminating the classic “accountant”. In 1983, the Bank opened its first historical branch in Treviso. A few months later, the bank was the victim of a resounding robbery in its headquarter in piazza Dell’Armi, a robbery that provided a huge plunder of more than twenty billion lire and brought the bank in the limelight at local and national level7. The increased structural dimension … in the mid 1980s, the amount of 500 billion lire from the collection of funds from customers was reached …led to the decision of establishing a Foundation “to face in a rational way all the new demands of intervention in the social and cultural field”8.
    The national, European, and world framework changed rapidly between the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. It was a decade of great social and economic transformations (just one fact: the immigrants in Montebelluna were about 120 in 1991 and ten years after they reached almost 4,000 units); with the start of the European Single Market and the ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht, the challenge for any small-medium bank was to grow or to succumb. Such a dilemma afflicted Popolare di Asolo e Montebelluna as well, also because in the region Veneto, like in the other Italian regions, long and complex chains of mergers and takeovers were taking place, thus threatening the bank headquartered in Montebelluna. Consequently, between 1996 and 1997, a draft of agreement with San Paolo was started, and the agreement was reached on 4 February 1997 and ratified by both Boards of Directors. The draft provided for “the distribution of products and services of the bank of Turin through the [network of Popolare]”, while San Paolo accepted the offer “of limiting its presence in the province of Treviso, by programming the cession [to Popolare] of two of its branches in Treviso, one in Castelfranco Veneto and one ready for the opening in Montebelluna”9. The “immaterial” cost of the operation was rather clear: to join forces with San Paolo meant, at least, to loosen the relationship with the territory that had been built tenaciously in more than one hundred and twenty years of activity. For this reason, several shareholders and some leading personalities of Montebelluna carried out an intense secret activity in order to break the deal with the bank of Turin. The right occasion took place on 22 March 1997: in the framework of Palazzetto Legrenzi, crowded with almost two thousand shareholders, the assembly substituted almost entirely the Board of Directors by electing different representatives, like the new President Flavio Trinca and the Vice President Franco Antiga, who were against the deal with San Paolo. In a matter of a few days, the agreement was cancelled and the Managing Director Vincenzo Consoli was appointed CEO. The new decade saw Popolare move on three fronts: 1) the takeover of other banks; 2) the European approach; 3) the much needed corporate reorganisation in order to better manage the articulate and complex activity of what was becoming a group and not a simple cooperative bank anymore. With reference to the first point, Popolare di Asolo e Montebelluna took over Banca di Credito Cooperativo del Piave e Livenza: a new dimension that pushed it to change its name into Veneto Banca and to give itself broader objectives. Afterwards, it took over Banca di Bergamo, Banca Meridiana, Banca del Garda and Banca Popolare di Intra, together with the controlled Banca Popolare di Monza e Brianza. Long before, the dynamic North-East had started to establish economic ties with the countries of the former communist bloc: therefore, the newborn Veneto Banca started a series of strategic takeovers, like the one of Banca Italo Romena, of the Moldavian Eximbank, of Banca Italiana di Sviluppo … now Veneto Banka Albania … and of Gospodarsko Creditna Banka … now Veneto Banka Croatia.
    In 2004, the futuristic and prestigious administrative centre of the group was inaugurated. It substituted the previous headquarter in piazza Dell’Armi, which had seen all the events of the “old” Popolare di Montebelluna since the very beginning. Along its path, Veneto Banca did not renounce to its status of cooperative bank, deep-rooted in the territory (interviewed by the newspaper “Corriere della Sera”, Vincenzo Consoli, Managing Director of Veneto Banca, answered in this way to the journalist who asked about the many occasions in which various banks had tried to attack the bank: “We are a beautiful lady and the suitors are many, but we are a serious lady”. About the hypothesis of listing Veneto Banca on the stock exchange, he replied curtly: “I can’t see the need for it: nobody sells shares here, we have twenty thousand shareholders but there’s no queue to get in”10). Between 1997 and 2007, Veneto Banca more than doubled the number of branches, employees and shareholders, and managed to triple the dividend yield. In December 2010, the Gruppo Veneto Banca had almost six hundred branches representing a well-structured territorial network, depending on Veneto Banca in the North, on Cassa di Risparmio di Fabriano e Cupramontana in the Centre, and on Banca Apulia in the South … the latter two had became part of the Group at the beginning of 2010. In 2011, Veneto Banca merged with Compagnia Finanziaria Torinese (Cofito), former holding company of Banca Intermobiliare (BIM), specialised in wealth management and private banking, and it made a takeover bid on the totality of its shares: such an operation confirmed the strength and dynamism of the Group in a quite negative phase for the Italian economy.
    From the small group of men who founded Popolare in Montebelluna in 1877, to a bank with over 40,000 shareholders and 6,200 employees, “one of the first twelve Italian banks for administered funds”11.

    1The acronym stands for ‘Società Consortile per Azioni’, Italian Consortium Joint-Stock Company.
    The promoting committee was composed of: Francesco Calvi and Gaspare Marangoni-Ghirlanda, big landlords; Francesco Pasqualetti, Giacinto Baldo, Edoardo Guillion Mangilli, Clarimbaldo Corunda, landowners; Lodovico Boschieri, Giovanni Aurelio Legrenzi, lawyers; Antonio Saccardo, professor; Antonio Gobbato, spinning mill owner; Francesco Grilli, Luigi Gandin, Giovanni Gasperini, traders.
    3The first Board of Directors: Antonio Serena, spinning mill owner and future mayor of Cornuda; Giovanni Ferrari and Giovanni Peratoner, chemists; Antonio Bolzon and Giobatta dell’Armi, engineers; Giovanni Polin, landowner; Gaetano Legrenzi, doctor; Giobatta Marcato, trader; Giovanni Nardello, investor.
    4Statute of Banca popolare di Montebelluna (Società Cooperativa Anonima … cooperative joint-stock company), titolo V: Bilancio, utili e loro riparto e riserve, Articolo 45 (title V: Balance, profits and their share-out and reserve, Article 45 -TN).
    5Gasparini D., 1918-1945: una banca, più banche: il radicamento nel mandamento, in Gasparini D. and L. De Bortoli, Storia di una banca di territorio. Dalla popolare di Montebelluna a Veneto Banca (1877-2007), Treviso, Canova edizioni, 2008, p. 141.
    6Ibidem, pages 152-153.
    7E intanto vicino Treviso portano via 760 milioni (In the meanwhile, near Treviso, 760 million lire are carried away- TN), “la Repubblica”, 3 July 1984. The amount cited in the article does not include the money stolen from the safe-deposit boxes.
    8Gasparini D., 1967-1996. Oltre il miracolo economico: da Asolo a…Torri di Quartesolo, in
    Gasparini D. and L. De Bortoli, Storia di una banca di territorio. Dalla popolare di Montebelluna a
    Veneto Banca (1877-2007), op. cit., p. 275.
    9Gasparini D., 1997-2007. 22 marzo 1997: la difesa dell’identità e dell’autonomia, in Ibidem, op. cit., p. 282.
    10Pica P., interview to V. Consoli, Consoli, il “popolare” Veneto tra sportelli, finanza e Generali, “Corriere della Sera”, 4 september 2007. See also Righi S., La campagna d’Italia del ragionier Consoli, “Corriere della Sera”, 26 January 2009.
    11Brochure Veneto Banca Holding, Conoscere il territorio, riconoscere il valore, page 3. Downloadable from http://www.venetobanca.it/pagine/pagina.aspx?ID=La_banca001&L=IT (consultazione aprile 2011). On the topic, see Possamai P., Veneto banca entra nella top ten del credito, “la Repubblica”, 7 september 2009.?

    Links: (in Italian only) www.venetobanca.it?


    Editor: 2011 Massimo PIERMATTEI? - 2018 ASSONEBB


    Capital invested in a young potential high-growth firm. The investment can consist of debt and private equity because directed to unquoted firms. In the U.S.A., venture capital includes both early stage financing and expansion financing, while in Europe the latter refers to private equity, and venture capital refers only to early stage financing. In general, the term venture capital does not cover management buy-outs and buy-ins, and it comprises the following types of financing:
    - Seedcorn: financing to allow the research and development of a business concept or product;
    - Start-up: financing to allow further development of a business that has started in the past years. At this stage, the initial marketing of a product not yet commercially sold is developed;
    - Early stage financing: funds to begin manufacture and sales. Companies can be still unprofitable and not breaking even;
    - Expansion: financing to allow expansion in production capacity, working capital and market or product development.
    There are different suppliers of venture capital (venture capitalists): high net worth individuals, private partnerships and corporations that raise capital from institutional investors (pension funds, insurance companies, etc.), subsidiaries of large financial and industrial corporations (venture capital subsidiaries), or business angels. The reason behind the investment decision in a high risk early-stage venture is the high returns. Usually, a venture capitalist expect a return of between five and ten times their initial equity investment in about five to ten years.
    Arnold G. (2002), Corporate Financial Management, Pearson Education
    Ross Stephen A., Westerfield Randolph W., Jaffe J. (2002), Corporate Finance, McGraw Hill

    Editor: Bianca GIANNINI

    © 2010 ASSONEBB


    Venture Capital Trust (VCT) is a British investment vehicle quoted on the London Stock Exchange, whose purpose is to encourage investment in small, fast-growing companies by offering private investors tax breaks in return for a three-year investment commitment. The first VTCs were launched in 1995.

    Editor: Bianca GIANNINI

    © 2010 ASSONEBB

  • VIX index

    VIX, the CBOE Volatility Index®, is a key measure of market expectations of near-term volatility conveyed by S&P 500 stock index option prices. Since its introduction in 1993, the VIX Index has been considered by many to be the world's premier barometer of investor sentiment and market volatility. Several investors expressed interest in trading instruments related to the market's expectation of future volatility, and so VX futures were introduced in 2004, and VIX options were introduced in 2006.
    Options and futures on volatility indexes are available for investors who wish to explore the use of instruments that might have the potential to diversify portfolios in times of market stress.
    Data definition and further information are available here (VIX)


    A measure of the scale of transactions in a particular security or market.

    ©2012 Editor: House of Lords

Selected letter: V English version

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