In 1995, the word was used for the first time by Leyshon and Thriftto indicate the limited physical access to banking services as a result of bank branch closures. It was with Kempson and Whyley (1999) that the term was used with the current meaning to describe the case of a growing group of people who face barriers to gain access to mainstream financial services and products. Today, financial exclusion is largely recognized as a part of a much wider social exclusion.

Leyshon, A. and Thrift, N. (1995). Geographies of financial exclusion: financial abandonment in Britain and the United States. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, 20, pp.312-341
Kempson, E. and Whyley, C. (1999). Kept Out or Opted Out? Understanding and Combating Financial Exclusion. Bristol: Policy Press.
Editor: Melania MICHETTI

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